Assessment methods may be formative or summative.

Formative assessment is used during the course to gauge the student’s depth or level of learning and provides the teacher with important knowledge of the effect of his/her teaching methods.

Summative assessment provides proof of learning and defines the level of knowledge, skills and competence the student has attained.

Assessment can be done in a variety of forms but is closely linked to teaching methods and learning outcome.

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The different types of assessment make it possible to test different competences, and should be considered when choosing assessment method. In the matrix below (Fig. 2) the learning outcomes may be entered in the columns, knowledge, skills and competence, and the applicable assessment form decided.

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Figure 2 Adapted from the SDU VUE program

Written exams such as research projects, cases and essays may be applicable to prove knowledge of theories, methods, and practice, as well as skills to apply the theories and methods on complex issues. Oral exams may show the same or, in case of the subject being language proficiency, also demonstrate competence.

Performance-based tests such as practical exams show skills and competence in problem-solving and handling complex situations. Tests in laboratories, in practice, in simulators or VR match learning outcomes aiming at practical skills.

Tests may be individual or group tests where the latter may prove collaborative skills and competences.